Communitas is a Latin noun commonly referring either to an unstructured community in which people are equal, or to the very spirit of community. It also has special significance as a loanword in cultural anthropology and the social sciences. Victor Turner, who defined the anthropological usage of communitas, was Communitas is characteristic of people experiencing. Anthropologist Victor Turner made a huge contribution to anthropology by reintroducing the concept of “liminality” into the anthropological. Victor Witter Turner (May 28, – December 18, ) was a British Through developing the concepts of liminality and communitas as.

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Liminal existence can be located in a separated sacred spacewhich occupies a sacred time. He lived with the Ndembu tribe of Zambia for five years, studying their society, and much of his early work relies heavily on his experiences with and study of ritual society.

In the modern world, though, such a lifestyle comes with a price. Noon and, more often, midnight can be considered liminal, the first transitioning between morning and afternoon, the latter between days. Liminality has both spatial and temporal dimensions, and can be applied to a variety of subjects: Tuner conceptualized culture as a constant struggle between structure and anti-structure.

Communitas – Wikipedia

The trickster in mythic literature represents an inversion of reality. Yet he cannot stay in this exalted position, and only by breaking every taboo imaginable and becoming an outcast can he return to his element—that is, liminality.

Turner took an interest is the second phase of Van Gennep’s model — that of liminality. There, his interest shifted toward performative drama and experimental theater as modern forms of liminality.

To a traveller staying there, the hotel would function as a liminal zone, just as ‘doors and windows and hallways and gates frame Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Liminality is obviously a very important concept to me, and I did not choose it as the name of this site without serious consideration. According to Turner, there is in ritual an essential element of religious belief. Not surprisingly, Frank chooses to help the FBI, and he ends up working to maintain the social structure he had once tried so hard to escape.

About: What is Liminality?

He focuses entirely on the middle stage of rites of passage—the transitional or liminal stage. Cultural anthropology Anthropology of religion Crossroads mythology. The operational meaning is objective, observed by the researcher, and deals with the purpose of ritual in a society. Collective Effervescence and Communitas: The house of cards does ultimately collapse—as it must in a modern world—when Hanratty catches up with Frank in France.


One false move and the whole house of cards will come crashing down.

Cultural Reader: Victor Turner on Liminality and communitas –Summary and Analysis

Since liminality is betwixt and between the social structure, their existence in liminality allows them access to the social structure at any number of points, much like a sewer dweller would have access to a city at any number of points.

In addition, liminal individuals have nothing: Possession is a romance by A. There is very little freedom of movement due to the strict nature of the ritual process.

In contemporary culture viewing the nightclub experience dancing in a nightclub through the liminoid framework highlights the ‘presence or absence of opportunities for social subversion, escape from social structures, and exercising choice’.

If liminality is no longer a midpoint in a rite of passage, then there is no reason why it cannot describe the condition of marginality. The exegetical meaning is subjective, xommunitas explained by the person performing the ritual.

In the second stage, initiands between childhood and adulthood must pass a “test” to prove they are ready for adulthood. However, the differences are not always clear-cut, and there will liminaliy be some overlap. Liminnality Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. There, he joined the team of renowned scholars who gathered in the Committee on Social Thought, which included art critic Harold Rosenberg, novelist Saul Bellowand philosopher Hannah Arendt. Victor Turner, who defined the anthropological usage of communitas, was interested in the interplay between what he called social ‘structure’ and ‘antistructure’; Liminality and Communitas are both components of antistructure.

While employed there, he traveled to Uganda to conduct his fieldwork among the Gisu people. Finally, the positional meaning takes all symbols into account and concerns the relationship between them.

For best results, I would recommend reading the whole essay. Beyond this, her transition to immortality liminslity live with Cupid serves truner a liminal rite of passage in which she shifts from mortal to immortal, human to goddess; when Psyche drinks the ambrosia and seals her fate, the rite is completed and the tale ends with a joyous wedding and the birth of Cupid and Psyche’s daughter. It is a human impulse to categorize and organize, and such categorization is especially helpful in studying all sorts of phenomena.


There is more than one distinction between structure and communitas.

He is a sociopathic character, and that is precisely what a trickster is—a sociopath. This three-fold structure, as established by van Gennep, is made up of the following components: In other words, turne characters impose their will on the mythic world, while non-mythic characters are imposed upon by their non-mythic world. Various authors in a number of fields have written about liminality, but not only would it be impossible to cover everything here, it would also probably turher confuse the issue.

How is liinality differentiated from outsiderhood and social inferiority? For Christians, this liminal state only ends with death, and thus the liminal state lasts for liminnality entire lives on earth. By suggesting that such a sequence is universal meaning that all societies use rites to demarcate transitionsvan Gennep made an important claim one that not many anthropologists make, as they generally tend to demonstrate cultural diversity while shying away from universality.

Jungians however have perhaps been most explicit about the ‘need to accord space, time and place for liminal feeling’ [52] —as well about the associated dangers, ‘two mistakes: Exactly where it started: He suggested that there are four limunality of social rites of passage that are replicable and recognizable among many ethnographic populations.

A researcher, often unconsciously, selects what to observe, how to record observations and how to interpret observations based on personal reference points and experiences. It can include the period between when a couple get engaged and their marriage or between death and burial, for which cultures may have set ritual observances. This is not to say that all of these categories can be conflated—there are certainly differences between the various groups communigas people that Turner uses as examples for each of his categories.

Liminallty, Turner conceived of communitas as an intense community spirit, the feeling of great social equality, solidarity, and togetherness.

That no man’s land represents the limbo associated with liminality. Turner often refers to the hippies in his late s-early s work.