The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers’ world view or cognition. Also known as the Sapir–Whorf. Linguistic relativity; Sapir–Whorf hypothesis Benjamin Lee Whorf plwiki Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa; ptwiki Hipótese de Sapir-Whorf; rowiki Ipoteza Sapir- Whorf. Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa (ang. Sapir–Whorf hypothesis), in. prawo relatywizmu jezykowego – teoria lingwistyczna gloszaca, ze uzywany jezyk.

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Cognitive Science 2pp. Universalism and Universalism and relativism of color terminology.

His work ” Thought and Language ” [25] has been compared to Whorf’s and taken as mutually supportive evidence of language’s influence on cognition. Another variant is idealistwhich holds that human mental capacities are generally unrestricted by biological-material strictures. The protagonist explains that aapira-whorfa Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is the theory that the language you speak determines how you think”.

In his book Women, Fire and Dangerous things: It is the ‘plainest’ English which contains the greatest number of unconscious assumptions about nature. An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. The question bears on philosophical, psychological, linguistic and anthropological questions.

Linguistic relativity – Wikipedia

A major question is whether human psychological faculties are mostly innate or whether they are mostly a result of learning, and hence subject to cultural and social processes such as language.

Pinker hipotezza other universalists have been accused by relativists of misrepresenting Whorf’s views and arguing against strawmen. Augustine sapira-ehorfa, for example, held the view that language was merely labels applied to already existing concepts.

American linguist William Dwight Whitneyfor example, actively strove to eradicate Native American languagesarguing that their speakers were savages and would be better off learning English and adopting a “civilized” way of life. A comparative analysis”, in Hickmann, M. Researchers such as Lucy, [74] Saunders [75] and Levinson [76] argued that Berlin and Kay’s study does not refute linguistic relativity in color naming, because of unsupported assumptions in their study such as whether all cultures in fact have a clearly-defined category of “color” and because of related data problems.


In his science fiction novel The Languages of Pao the author Jack Vance describes how specialized languages are a major part of a strategy to create specific classes in a society, to enable the sapira-whoffa to withstand occupation and develop itself. Introduction to language development. Researchers examine the interface between thought or cognitionlanguage and culture and describe the relevant influences.

Ein internationales Handbuched. He hipotsza that cognitive differences between the grammatical usage of Swedish prepositions and Finnish cases could have caused Swedish factories to pay more attention to the work process while Finnish factory organizers paid more attention to hipotez individual worker.

Uniwersytet Adama Mickiewicza Keywords: Lakoff also argued that metaphor plays an important part in political debates such as the “right to life” or the “right to choose”; or “illegal aliens” or “undocumented workers”. Inhe suggested that Whorf was a “neo- Herderian champion” [47] and inhe proposed “Whorfianism of the third kind” in an attempt to refocus linguists’ attention on what he claimed was Whorf’s real interest, namely the intrinsic value of “little peoples” and “little languages”.

Enter your Username Email below. In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the idea of the existence of different national characters, or ” Volksgeister “, of different ethnic groups was the moving force behind the German romantics school and the beginning ideologies of ethnic nationalism.

Grammatical gender and object concepts”, in R. Among Whorf’s best-known examples of linguistic relativity are instances where an indigenous language has several terms for a concept that is only described with one word in European languages Whorf used the acronym SAE ” Standard Average European ” to allude to the rather similar grammatical structures of the well-studied European languages in contrast to the greater diversity of less-studied languages.

Causal theory of reference Contrast theory of meaning Contrastivism Conventionalism Cratylism Deconstruction Descriptivist theory of names Direct reference theory Dramatism Expressivism Linguistic determinism Logical atomism Logical positivism Mediated reference theory Nominalism Non-cognitivism Phallogocentrism Quietism Relevance theory Semantic externalism Semantic holism Structuralism Supposition theory Symbiosism Theological noncognitivism Theory of descriptions Verification theory.

Uses editors parameter CS1 maint: Swedish speakers describe time using distance terms like “long” or “short” while Spanish speakers do it using volume related terms like “big” or “small”.


Research on weaker forms has produced positive empirical evidence for a relationship. Views Read Edit View history. He concluded that the debate had been confused.

It is easy to show that language and culture are not intrinsically associated.

Retrieved from ” https: For sapira-whora, Pinker argues in The Language Instinct that thought is independent of language, that language is itself meaningless in any fundamental way to human thought, and that human beings do not even think in “natural” language, i.

Joshua Fishman argued that Whorf’s true position was largely overlooked. Critics such as Lenneberg, Black and Pinker attribute to Whorf a strong linguistic determinism, while LucySilverstein and Levinson point to Whorf’s explicit rejections of determinism, and where he contends that translation and commensuration is possible.

Although Whorf lacked an advanced degree in linguistics, his reputation reflects his acquired competence.

Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa – przegląd argumentów zwolenników i przeciwników

They showed that in languages with few color terms, it is predictable from the number of terms which hues are chosen as focal colors, for example, languages with only three color terms always have the focal colors black, white and red. The linguistics of “color”.

Georgetown University Press, pp. Boas’ student Edward Sapir reached back to the Humboldtian idea that languages contained the key to understanding the world views of peoples.

Linguistic relativity

APL programming language originator Kenneth E. This example was later criticized by Lenneberg [34] as not actually demonstrating causality between the use of the word empty and hipoteeza action of smoking, but instead was an example of circular reasoning.

University of California Press. In the late s and early s, advances in cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics renewed interest in the Sapir—Whorf hypothesis.

Recent research with non-linguistic experiments in hipogeza with different grammatical properties e.